Monday, March 16, 2020
How to Get Into UCLA 5 Key Tips SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you hoping to get into UCLA? If so, this article will help you learn everything you need to know to become one of UCLAÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted applicants this year. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll discuss how hard it is to get into UCLA, what UCLA is looking for in its students, the test scores and GPA you need to stand out from other applicants, and how to ace your UCLA essays. How Hard Is It to Get Into UCLA? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very competitive to get into UCLA. Each year, UCLA accepts around 17% of its applicants. Put another way, that means that UCLA accepts 17 out of every 100 students that apply. UCLAÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted students rate is competitive- and getting more so every year. If you want to be one of UCLAÃ¢â¬â¢s accepted students, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to make sure every part of your application is in top shape. What Is UCLA Looking for in Its Students? UCLA describes its core mission in three words: education, research, and service. As a public research university, UCLAÃ¢â¬â¢s job is not only to teach its students, but to empower them to make positive change in the world. Those three words give us a hint at what it looks for in applicants. First, UCLA looks for students that value education. Successful applicants will have a stellar academic record and a history of challenging themselves. UCLA also values research, meaning that applicants should not only have academic interests, but be passionate about applying those interests. That means that you search for opportunities to learn outside of the classroom. Maybe you volunteer at a local lab or shadow someone in your prospective career path. Basically, you go out of your way to learn and apply your education. Finally, UCLA thinks that service is important. Successful applicants will have a record of being civic-minded and engaging with their communities. Perhaps you volunteered tutoring or were really involved with your local religious organization. Show that you care about people and issues other than yourself. Can You Apply to UCLA Early? UCLA doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t offer early action or early decision deadlines for its applicants. UCLA Application Deadlines and Requirements UCLA has one application deadline for regular admission on November 30. Students will hear back about the status of their application on March 31. You apply to UCLA using the University of California application. UCLA doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the Common app or the Universal app. UCLA requires either SAT or ACT scores with the writing component. You need to have completed the following years of coursework in high school by the time you enroll at UCLA: English: 4 years Math: 3 years Science: 2 years Foreign Language: 2 years Social Studies/History: 2 years Electives: 1 year You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to send in your official transcripts or any letters of recommendation with your UCLA application. What GPA Do I Need to Get Into UCLA? YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to be at the top of your class to have a chance of being admitted to UCLA. You'll need nearly straight A's in all your classes to compete with other applicants, as the average unweighted GPA of UCLA admitted applicants is 4.0 and the average weighted GPA is 4.64. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also need to take AP or IB classes to show that you can do well at advanced coursework. If your GPA is at or below the school average for weighted or unweighted (whatever matches with your school), you'll need a higher SAT or ACT score to compensate. Having outstanding standardized test scores will help you compete effectively against other applicants who have higher GPAs than you. What Test Scores Do I Need to Get Into UCLA? You need to take either the SAT or ACT (with writing component) to be admitted to UCLA. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to take any SAT II subject tests as part of your application. What SAT Scores Do I Need to Get Into UCLA? The average admitted applicant at UCLA has a composite SAT score of 1370 out of 1600. That breaks down to an average score of 690 on math and a 680 on reading/writing. UCLA requires that you send in all of your SAT scores. Yes, that means you have to send the results of every SAT you ever took. While sending in all of your scores may sound scary, donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry. UCLA will use the highest scores from a single administration of the test. UCLA doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t superscore its tests. You can submit up to six SAT scores without raising any eyebrows in the admissions office. If you submit more than six SAT scores, the admissions committee may start to wonder why you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t made larger improvements and why youÃ¢â¬â¢re still taking the test. If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t taken the SAT six times and havenÃ¢â¬â¢t achieved the score you need, you should make a plan and study to take the SAT again. What ACT Scores Do I Need to Get Into UCLA? The average ACT score of admitted applicants to UCLA is 29. Though UCLA doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an official ACT score requirement, if you apply with a 25 or below (which is the 25th percentile for admitted students), you'll have a very hard time getting in, unless you have something else very impressive in your application. There are so many applicants scoring 29 and above that a 25 will make your application stand outÃ¢â¬ ¦ in a bad way. UCLA Application Essays As part of your UCLA application, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to answer four personal insight questions out of eight total options. Each response is limited to 350 words. Here are the eight personal insight questions: Describe an example of your leadership experience in which you have positively influenced others, helped resolve disputes or contributed to group efforts over time. Every person has a creative side, and it can be expressed in many ways: problem solving, original and innovative thinking, and artistically, to name a few. Describe how you express your creative side. What would you say is your greatest talent or skill? How have you developed and demonstrated that talent over time? Describe how you have taken advantage of a significant educational opportunity or worked to overcome an educational barrier you have faced. Describe the most significant challenge you have faced and the steps you have taken to overcome this challenge. How has this challenge affected your academic achievement? Think about an academic subject that inspires you. Describe how you have furthered this interest inside and/or outside of the classroom. What have you done to make your school or your community a better place? Beyond what has already been shared in your application, what do you believe makes you stand out as a strong candidate for admissions to the University of California? The University of California website offers good insight into how to answer each of these questions, with specific questions that you can refer to in order to prompt your imagination. You can also use our article on UC application tips for more information. In general, your essays should reflect UCLAÃ¢â¬â¢s values: education, research, and service. You should show off your intellectual curiosity, as well as your desire to make a positive difference in the world. Tips for Getting Into UCLA While getting into UCLA is difficult, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not impossible. The more effort you put into all the parts of your application, the better chance you have of securing admission. #1: Prioritize Your Coursework UCLA students are high-achievers. To be accepted, you need to be one, too. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re still in your freshman, sophomore, or junior year of high school, plan to take some advanced classes to up your GPA. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to be disciplined and work hard to compete with the other applicants. Take the most difficult classes you can. Showing that you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid of rigorous coursework will indicate that youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready for the challenge of going to UCLA. #2: Ace Your Standardized Tests You need high standardized test scores in order to be admitted to UCLA. You should plan to take the SAT at least three or four times. Remember, you can take the SAT up to six times before the admissions committee starts to wonder why you keep taking the test. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the ACT, you should study for and take the test as many times as necessary to at least meet the average ACT score of UCLA admitted applicants. #3: Write Standout Essays Your essays are the best opportunity to show off your skills and your unique interests. You should put a lot of effort into every one of the four essays you write for UCLA. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t wait until the last minute to write your UCLA essays- start them with plenty of time so that you can revise and receive feedback. #4: Prove That You Want to Go to UCLA Sometimes, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the thick of applying to college, it can be hard to remember that you get to choose which colleges to attend, too. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely have a few schools to choose from- schools that all thought youÃ¢â¬â¢d be a great fit on their campus. Where am I going with this? Colleges want you to attend, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re accepted! So they look to accept students who really want to attend their college specifically. If you can prove on your application that you really want to attend UCLA specifically, the admissions committee may be swayed in your favor. #5: Have a Spike in Your Application When youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to college, itÃ¢â¬â¢s tempting to seem well-rounded and interested in all the things. This is actually terrible advice. UCLA will see tens of thousands of applications from students whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve done every conceivable extracurricular and academic activity. You need to stand out. Your application wonÃ¢â¬â¢t stand out if youÃ¢â¬â¢re mediocre in band, on the track team, and on student council. It will stand out if you travel to Japan to perform with a world-class performance ensemble or qualify for the Olympic trials in shot put. Put all of your eggs in one basket- when your focus is on one thing, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be better at it than if you have to split your time and attention. In Conclusion It's difficult to get into UCLA- and getting more difficult every year! In order to be accepted to UCLA, you'll need to have an application with high test scores, great grades, and standout essays. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Trying to figure outa good SAT score for each subsection?Or are you wondering what makes agood SAT score for super-selective institutions? We can help! Looking for tips on how to create a great UC application? Our in-depth guide will tell you exactly how. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Belonging in Romulus my father and looking for alibrandi: Belonging represents the need for individuals to find their identity and place within a society. This results in the growth of individuals and their understanding of the world around them. Through reading the novels, Romulus, My Father and Looking for Alibrandi, we are helped to get a better understanding of the concept of belonging, belonging to a country, belonging to family, and belonging to a racial group. As well as the struggles of not belonging and being an outcast because of race. Romulus, My Father, written by Raimond Gaita, is a true story about Raimonds father, Romulus. Gaita explores the concepts of belonging to a family, belonging to the Australian landscape, and not being accepted because of the fact that Romulus was an immigrant. We belong when we feel connected to others and the world. Romulus found it hard to fit in when he arrived to Australia. This is understandable as immagration invariably involves detachment, loneliness and isolation. His first two years in Australia saw him working for the government, isolated from his family. Romulus did not physically belong to the community due to his appearance, everybody noticed his eyes, almond-shaped, hazel and intense. Colour imagery is used here to contrast the lighter colours of the stereotypical Australian. Romulus was embaressed about his dark complexion, he called himself gipsy and later in Australia, an Aborigine. We see here that Romulus changes his story, in a plea to belong to a community or environment. Romulus doesnt dwell over the isolation he feels, instead he has come to accept what fate dealt him. He feels he is not owed anything better then what he currently has. As time progresses and members of the community realise the blacksmithing and handyman skills he has, he earns respect. It was because Romulus treated everyone with great respect that he was eventually accepted and finally felt a sense of belonging. Similarly, in Looking for Alibrandi, written by Melina Marchetta, we see the pain of a 17 year old girl, Josephine, as she is stuck in between two worlds. She earnt a scholarship at an upper class private school where everyone is judged by how rich their families are. Josie is embaressed of her Italian background, she has been bullied through school and steers away from her Italian traditions. Josie endures pain over her background, and thinks no matter how smart she is, shes always going to be the little ethnic girl from Glebe as far as these people are concerned. She feels that she doesnt belong within society and The use of the words these people highlight the cultural divide and differences between the white anglo-saxon community and the Italian community. When Josie calls upon her father for legal help after assaulting Carly Bishop, her father asked her the reason why she hit Caly with a book, she called me a wog, amongst other things, her father then went on to say You are a wog Josie, does it offend you to be one? . From this point forward, Josie was forced to reconsider her perspective on being Italian. Eventually, a pride in her Italian heritage emerges, although she is selective and doesnt want to be a long suffering Italian woman as earlier generations of women had. However, she didn;t want to be a rebel Italian because she hates the thought of being outcasted by her Italian community, she wants to belong. A sense of belonging can be created with an environment. In Romulus, My Father, we feel Romuluss pain has he longs for the generous and soft Eurpoean foliage. Although the Australian landscape is beautiful, he has no connection or sense of belonging to the environment as he is used to the lush and green bush of Europe. Words with negative connotations such as scraggy and desolate are used to describe the harsh Australian environment and to highlight the fact that Romulus feels no sense of belonging with it. In contrast to this, we see how Raimond finally appreciates the rare beauty of the Australian environment. He now realises that how beautiful it is and feels a connection to it, he has finally stopped looking through his fathers European eyes, the scraggy shapes and sparse foliage actually became the foci for my sense of its beauty and everything else fell into place. In both texts we see the concepts of belonging to a family or close friends. In Romulus, we see the strong bond not only between Romulus and Raimond, but also Hora. The strong bond between father and son is symbolised solely by the memoir, the fact that Raimond wrote the novel about his father emphasies the strong bond they had. Romulus motorbikes were used as a symbol to show the sense of belonging they feel amongst each other, i was nervous when i rode with Mitru and entreated him to slow down on the gravel roads. When i rode with my father, no matter how fast he drove, i always urged him to go faster. Romulus and Horas relationship has stemmed from a cultural bond to a strong friendship based on respect and trust. They became close because of the similar cultures, and they were both aliens in a foreign country. Horas friendship rubs off onto Raimond, who he has great affection for. This is shown by Hora making sure Raimond had an orange for school every day. The fact that Hora would do anything for Raimond is a reflection of the deep sense of belonging that Hora feels towards Romulus. Similarly, in Looking for Alibrandi, we see the strong bond between Josie, and her mother Christina. Although they fight at times because of their fiery personalities, the bond will always be strong because of the hard times they have been through together. As Josie matures on her road to an inner sense of belonging, she becomes close to her grandmother. This is partly because of the fact she has accepted her Italian background, which means she can now tolerate her Nonna more. At the agof 17, she also meets her father for the first time. Initially, she resents him. But after spending time with him she realises how alike they are and they form a tight bond, therefore belonging with each other.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Latino Culture is Growing - Research Paper Example Latino culture is certainly changing, but it is the aim of this essay to provide evidence that Latino culture is growing within the United States and as such is becoming more influential and powerful than ever before. The hypothesis of this paper is that the literature will support the notion that Latino culture is growing within the United States, and as such the operational definition will seek to define the statement above by describing the number of Latin Americans in the United States and the areas in which their culture is growing. We will define the weight of the Latin American culture in terms of number and evidence provided within the literature that it is becoming more and more influential in all areas of cultural interest. According to our hypothesis, Latino culture is growing and as such we will expect the tests we do (in this case measuring qualitative and quantitative evidence for the growth of Latino culture) to support this, providing us with an operational definition . To understand the growth of Latino culture, it is important to understand what exactly comprises it. Latino culture at its most basic level involves anything cultural that can be found predominantly amongst those within the Latin American ethnic group. It also generally refers to movements that have come from Latin America directly, or modern adaptations of this. For example, Roman Catholicism is generally thought to be a large part of Latin American culture (Phol, 1998). Music is found within all cultures, and Latino culture is no different. Latino music generally refers to music made by those of a Latin American origin, whether it be traditional forms such as salsa or adaptations of more modern American trends such as hip-hop or rock music with a distinctly Latin flavour, such as involving traditional rhythms or singing in Spanish. Language is often associated with culture too, and we will look at how the Spanish language is the most important growing language in the United Stat es and how Spanglish (a fusion of Spanish and English) is becoming more common amongst Latin American and Anglo American teens. It is hard with Latino culture, as with any culture, to pin down exactly what makes it unique, as culture changes so rapidly. However, it is safe to assume that Latino culture can be attributed to those of Latin American origin and as such most of the cultural elements discussed within this essay will be those directly formed under the influence of people of this ethnic origin. It is widely recognised that Latino culture is growing, particularly within adolescent groups. Latino teenagers now have more spending power than Anglo teens, spending over $320 a month, which is 4% more than the average American teenager (Stapinski, 1999). This means that advertising companies have had to adapt and begin to target Latino adolescents to improve profit margins, and new advertising companies such as Lazos Latinos have started to appear, primarily targeting the Latino Y outh. With this increased targeted advertising, more elements of Latino culture have been reaching a wider audience, meaning that Anglo teenagers pick up on the trends that are currently defining Latino culture and as such the trends are spreading to a wider
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Is the solution to having it allfor parents just to have one child - Essay Example One child theory has been favoured by women due to its rationality and measurable outcomes. According to her theory, problem of mismanagement starts occurring when women in significant positions (professionals) opt for more than one child and end up in losing their health, wealth, joy, sanity and financial stability due to distracted presence (at home and work). A decade ago, when Ã¢â¬Å"Stay-at-home-momÃ¢â¬ revolution surged then Linda Hirshman (feminist writer) advised these women to not quit their career completely for upbringing of their children, but instead adapt one child policy to balance both. However, the revolution persuaded them to an extent that they left their jobs for family life. After a decade, Ã¢â¬Å"Stay-at-home-momÃ¢â¬ revolution is completely out of picture and women, who left professional life for family life, were interviewed to share their experiences of success or loss. These women who sacrificed their lives for child rearing, nearly after a decade face pressing issues like divorce, single parenting, sole management, financial instability and low professional scores on their resume due to job gap. Kali Goff the author of the article Ã¢â¬Å"Is Having Only One Child The Key To Gender Equality?Ã¢â¬ also supports Lind Hirshman stance on one child theory as it secures the position of a woman, when she is faced with issues like separation, divorce, single parenting or child custody. Moreover, she suggests that with multiple children dependency of a woman increases on his spouse. And this dependence is negative development for woman, as they tend to comprise bad/abusive behaviour of their spouse for the sake of their children. Thus, financial stability of a woman is a significant matter in all times and to maintain this stability, women have to embrace a strategy, which enables them to be successful as a parent and professional as well. Juggling with high profile career and family
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Statement of Problem Coming from the inner-city I have been exposed to many risk factors that affect a juvenile's chances of becoming a delinquent or serious and violent offender. Intervention, however, can decrease the chances of a juvenile becoming delinquent. There are various protective factors that can "buffer" the impact of risk factors on a child's life. My mentor was the main source of protection from the risk factors of my childhood. Despite the fact that my family was not the positive influence I needed, I am grateful for my mentor because he really taught me a lot. For children raised in a single parent home, a mentor can do a world of good for both the child and himself. Both benefit from the knowledge each can provide regarding their different social worlds. The introduction to this paper is a story of how I arrived at where I am currently, compared to where I might have been had I never met my Mentor. The story of my father's life without a father, or any other positive influence, is included to explain my father's footsteps. My grandfather died in prison but with great pride about what he had done: breaking the law in order to buy a home for his family. The all too common product of premature unions are children raised in a broken home with one parent. Having two incomes is a lot better than one, if not having the mom at home to raise the children while she is financially supporting the family. Being a single parent is very difficult, with daycare being one of the only options for childcare while working. Some research indicates that daycare causes a child to be more aggressive as compared to children who have both parents while growing up, one being the caretaker and the other the provider. Family is... ...ng to others they often turned to drugs because they looked at it as being what the cool kids are doing. The participation in drug use will lead a person to only make friends with those who do drugs. The interviewees were also around drugs very often since their family members did it as well. When the parents do not look down upon the use of drugs they are only encouraging the use of drugs. Prevention programs should target the parents and family similar to some type of parent management training. This type of training would consist of social and academic skills, conflict resolution and mediation. Programs that consist of more than one predictor are more effective. Community and school-based strategies are also a part of being a protective factor. Crime has still increased between the mid 1990's and now, even though the number of chronic offenders is still unknown.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Introduction: The belief that God is present to the human mind and soul, and can be found is part of the Christian tradition. Many Christian philosophers seem to regard this as the concern only of specially devout persons and of no interest for philosophical purposes. The evidence for it, they think, it too slender to be taken seriously by academic philosophers without particular interest in religion, who tend to regard anything in the nature of religious experience as suspect. So, philosophical discussions about religion are usually concerned with rational arguments for and against theism, usually of a technical kind. In this article, I want to discuss the Augustine world with the reformist will as proposed by Martin Luther. One of the great cornerstones in the history of Christian thought, The City of God is vital to an understanding of modern Western society and how it came into being. Begun in A.D. 413 by Saint Augustine, the great theologian who was bishop of Hippo, the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s initial purpose was to refute the charge that Christianity was to blame for the fall of Rome (which had occurred just three years earlier). AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s City of God, a monumental work of religious lore, philosophy, and history, was written as a kind of literary tombstone for Roman culture. After the downfall of Rome, Augustine wrote this book to portray the corruption of RomansÃ¢â¬â¢ pursuit of earthly pleasures: Ã¢â¬Å"grasping for praise, open-handed with their money; honest in the pursuit of wealth, they wanted to hoard glory.Ã¢â¬ Augustine contrasts his condemnation of Rome with an exaltation of Christian culture. The glory that Rome failed to attain will only be realized by citizens of the City of God, the Heavenly Jerusalem foreseen in Revelation. On the other hand Hans J. Hillerbrand in his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Protestant ReformationÃ¢â¬ says Ã¢â¬Å"When the reformers who had first ventured a new interpretation of the gospel had passed from the scene, the question which had haunted the Reformation from its very inceptionÃ¢â¬âwhere is truth?Ã¢â¬âwas still contested by the proponents of the old and the new faith. But one fact was beyond dispute: Western Christendom was tragically dividedÃ¢â¬ ¦into no less than five religious factionsÃ¢â¬ ¦.Though these divisions were the result of intense religious conviction, they could not help but lessen the intensity of religious belief in Europe. The Reformation of the sixteenth century was the last period in the history of Western civilization when men were preoccupied with religion, argued it, fought and even died for it. Its consequences are still with usÃ¢â¬ . Argument: The two cities in city of God and the two wills in Lutheranism No book except the Bible itself had a greater influence on the Middle Ages than the Ã¢â¬Å"City of GodÃ¢â¬ . Since medieval Europe has been the cradle of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Western civilization, this work by consequence is vital for an understanding of our world and how it came into being. St. Augustine is often regarded as the most influential Christian thinker after St. Paul, and this book highlights upon a vast synthesis of religious and secular knowledge. It began as a reply to the charge that Christian otherworldliness was causing the decline of the Roman Empire. Augustine produced a wealth of evidence to prove that paganism bore within itself the seeds of its own destruction. Then he proceeded to his larger theme, a cosmic interpretation of history in terms of the struggle between good and evil: the City of God in conflict with the Earthly City or the City of the Devil. This, the first serious attempt at a philosophy of history, was to have incalculable influence in forming the Western mind on the relations of church and state, and on the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the temporal order. It is more than a question of setting down on paper a series of abstract principles and then applying them in practice. Christianity is more than a moral code, more than a philosophy, more than a system of rites. Although it is sufficient, in the abstract, to divide the Catholic religion into three aspects and call them creed, code and cult, yet in practice, the integral Christian life is something far more than all this. It is more than a belief; it is a life. That is to say, it is a belief that is lived and experienced and expressed in action. The action in which it is expressed, experienced and lived is called a mystery. This mystery is the sacred drama which keeps ever present in history the Sacrifice that was once consummated by Christ on Calvary. In plain wordsÃ¢â¬âif you can accept them as plainÃ¢â¬âChristianity is the life and death and resurrection of Christ going on day after day in the souls of individual men and in the heart of society. It is this Christ-life, this incorporation into the Body of Christ, this union with His death and resurrection as a matter of conscious experience, that St. Augustine wrote of in his Confessions. But Augustine not only experienced the reality of Christ living in his own soul. He was just as keenly aware of the presence and action, the Birth, Sacrifice, Death and Resurrection of the Mystical Christ in the midst of human society. And this experience, this vision, if you would call it that, qualified him to write a book that was to be, in fact, the autobiography of the Catholic Church. That is what The City of God is. Just as truly as the Confessions are the autobiography of St. Augustine, The City of God is the autobiography of the Church written by the most Catholic of her great saints. Evidently, the treatment of the theme is so leisurely and so meandering and so diffuse that The City of God, more than any other book, requires an introduction. The best we can do here is to offer a few practical suggestions as to how to tackle it. The first of these suggestions is this: since, after all, The City of God reflects much of St. AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s own personality and is colored by it, the reader who has never met Augustine before ought to go first of all to the Confessions. Once he gets to know the saint, he will be better able to understand AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s view of society. Then, no one who is not a specialist, with a good background of history or of theology or of philosophy, ought not to attempt to read the City, for the first time, beginning at page one. The living heart of the City is found in Book Nineteen, and this is the section that will make the most immediate appeal to us today because it is concerned with the theology of peace. However, Book Nineteen cannot be understood all by itself. The best source for solutions to the most pressing problems it will raise is Book Fourteen, where the origin of the two Cities is sketched, in an essay on original sin. On the other hand the protestant reformation deals with the religious movement which made its appearance in western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs. The causes of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century must be sought as far back as the fourteenth. The doctrine of the church, it is true, had remained pure; saintly lives were yet frequent in all parts of Europe, and the numerous beneficent medieval institutions of the church continued their course uninterruptedly. Whatever unhappy conditions existed were largely due to civil and profane influences or to the exercise of authority by ecclesiastics in civil spheres; they did not obtain everywhere with equal intensity, nor did they always occur simultaneous in the same country. Ecclesiastical and religious life exhibited in many places vigor and variety; works of education and charity abounded; religious art in all its forms had a living force; domestic missionaries were many and influential; pious and edifying literature was common and appreciated. Gradually, however, and largely owing to the variously hostile spirit of the civil powers, fostered and heightened by several elements of the new order, there grew up in many parts of Europe political and social conditions which hampered the free reformatory activities of the church, and favored the bold and unscrupulous, who seized a unique opportunity to let loose all the forces of heresy and schism so long held in check by the harmonious action of the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s theology is his understanding of God that can be summarized as Gottes Gottheit, which means Ã¢â¬Å"God is God.Ã¢â¬ In the deepest sense, Luther believes that God is above all and in all. God, through his creative power, reveals that he is free and immutable. He alone can bring life into existence. He alone sustains life. He alone freely wills. Moreover, what God wills can not be impeded or resisted by a mere creature. God is all-powerful and therefore, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is alone immutable. Any person, therefore, that appeals to the freedom of human will attempts to usurp for themselves an attribute that belongs only to God. The free and immutable will of God is, in LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s writings, fundamental to a right and proper faith. Without it, God is not God and Scripture would, therefore, have to be annulled. In BOW, Luther constantly emphasizes these two characteristics of the will of God and points out their significance for the Faith. In addition, Luther argues that God has two wills as pertains His nature: (1) the revealed will of His word and, (2) the hidden or inscrutable will. These characteristics of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will provide the basis for understanding and interpreting LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction that the human will is enslaved. For Luther, the free will of God is not simply GodÃ¢â¬â¢s limitless and unobstructed ability to choose between any set of variables in any set of circumstances. Rather, it is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s unique ability to transcend all these variables and circumstances to perform, or not perform, any action that He desires. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is not contingent upon the will of any other being. In ceaseless activity, God creates the possibilities. As such, the free will of God is most plainly revealed to humanity through His creative acts. God freely chooses to create our present reality and likewise, He freely sustains this reality. In fact, reality does not exist except by the will of God. To this all-encompassing extent then, Luther asserts that God is all in all. Nothing is that God does not declare to be. And, it is this creative power that manifests GodÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom, His free will. In recognizing LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s pronounced emphasis on GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty, Paul Althaus declares: Ã¢â¬Å"God is the first or principal cause, all others are only secondary or instrumental causes. They are only the tools which he uses in the service of his own autonomous, free, and exclusive working; they are only the masks under which he hides his activityÃ¢â¬ . The second characteristic of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã will that is crucial to LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the bondage of the human will, is its immutability. That is, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will can not be changed, altered or impeded. The immutability of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is the logical conclusion to the freedom of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty and almighty power demands that whatever God wills happens by necessity. Nothing occurs contingently. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will does not act independently of reality, as the human will does, but rather, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will creates reality. In LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s theology, the will of God is not contingent and so likewise, the foreknowledge of God is also not contingent. For whatever God wills, he foreknows and so, whatever He foreknows must, by necessity, happen. For if it did not happen, then God would be fallible and His will contingent which Luther declares Ã¢â¬Å"is not to be found in God!Ã¢â¬ Ã It is the immutable will of God, acting freely, that provides the Christian with Ã¢â¬Å"the assurance of things hoped forÃ¢â¬ (Heb 11:1), namely that the promises of God will be fulfilled. As Luther suggests, Ã¢â¬Å"the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s chief and only comfort in every adversity lies in knowing that God does not lie, but brings all things to pass immutably, and that His will cannot be resisted, altered or impeded. Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed, for Luther, the conviction that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is free and immutable must be central to the Faith. Yet, LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s theology presents a problem: if God wills everything and everything He wills comes to pass then one must conclude that God wills the salvation of few and the damnation of many (cf. Mt 22:14). Luther answered this dilemma by teaching that God has two wills, the revealed and the hidden. As Luther declares in BOW, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s decree to damn Ã¢â¬Å"the undeserving . . . [who are] compelled by natural necessity to sin and perishÃ¢â¬ does indeed seem horrible. Moreover, all rational and philosophical knowledge of God can not avoid the terrible reality of this conclusion, for as Luther concedes, the Ã¢â¬Å"injustice of God . . . is traduced as such by arguments which no reason or light of nature can resistÃ¢â¬ . Luther understands this horrible decree in light of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s justice in two ways. For Luther, the answer to these questions is twofold: (1) we must simply believe that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s justice is righteous because in Christ God has proven His love and compassion and, (2) we should not probe into the hidden or inscrutable will of God wherein God operates paradoxically, i.e. righteousness made evident through unrighteousness. LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s twofold answer to the questions of damnation reveals a high view of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty and majesty. Moreover, the answer is in accordance with LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s view that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is uniquely free and immutable. The answer also demands that the Christian simply trust in God. The Christian must believe all that is revealed in Scripture, not merely those things that are pleasant to the senses, and as such, we are compelled to accept the fact that God actively chooses to reject certain people. Nevertheless, if God has said in His Word that He is loving and gracious, and He has revealed himself to be such through His forbearance with the Israelites and the glorious plan of salvation through Jesus Christ, but what right can we judge the manner in which God oversees and sustains the world? For Luther, this is precisely the point at which the Christian must heed the words of God, spoken through the prophet Isaiah: Ã¢â¬Å"For my thoughts are not your thoughts, nor are your ways my ways, says the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughtsÃ¢â¬ (Isa 55:8-9). Luther would likewise appeal to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s answer to Job in Job 38-41 and the words of Paul in Romans 9:20 as yet other examples of the futility of comprehending the incomprehensible and inscrutable will of God. Luther, therefore, answers the critics of predestination and defends GodÃ¢â¬â¢s decree to affect unbelief in people by appealing to this inscrutable wisdom and will of God, a will that cannot be understood by any attempt of human reason. Because God is God, He has the right to condemn man for sins that God works in Him.10 And so, it is by faith that the Christian simply trusts that God is righteous, loving and gracious in so working. Luther consoles the Christian by exhorting them to look only to the revealed will of God that promises salvation to all who receive Christ. Thus, He does not will the death of a sinner-that is, in His Word; but He wills it by His inscrutable will. At present, however, we must keep in view His Word and leave alone His inscrutable will; for it is by His Word, and not by His inscrutable will, that we must be guided. Yet, for Luther, knowing that God does possess a hidden and inscrutable will of God provides valuable insights for the Christian. The inscrutable will of God tempers the revealed will of God. The doctrine of the free, immutable and inscrutable will of God, therefore, contributes three important foundations to the Christian Faith: (1) God is sovereign, all-powerful and therefore, even evil is under the sway of His goodness and as such, the Christian can be certain that the promises of God will be realized, (2) humanity is not free to earn or demand anything of God and so, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s gift of salvation can truly be called free and gracious and, (3) the Christian, in response to these truths, is properly humbled and learns, in reverent adoration, to fear God, who acts freely and immutability for His glory. In consequence of his view of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will, LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the human will is necessarily placed in total subjection to the Divine. It is in this respect that Luther stands in contrast to Erasmus. LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion of this topic is theocentric, beginning with a discussion of God and His attributes whereas Erasmus belies an anthropocentric view, beginning with human experience. For Luther, that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is immutable logically demands that manÃ¢â¬â¢s will is mutable. For if GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will is not contingent but immutable and free, no other will can be also be immutable and free otherwise these wills could impede one another and consequently, these wills would no longer be immutable and free but rather, they would be subject to one another. As such, Luther rightly proclaims the inconsistency of the term free will. In LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s writings, there are three primary considerations to consider in evaluating the characteristics of the human will: (1) the human will is mutable, (2) as a consequence of the Fall, the human will is enslaved to sin and, (3) the human will requires the grace of God, offered through the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ Jesus, to affect any positive change in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s position on the Divine and human wills was not a small matter to him. In Table-Talk, Luther once stated in regards to his position that Ã¢â¬Å"I know it to be the truth, though all the world should be against it; yea, the decree of Divine Majesty must stand fast against the gates of hell.Ã¢â¬ The belief that humanity is enslaved to sin and that it is only by sovereign election that God saves a person formed the basis for LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction of justification by grace through faith. Grace is one the most important principles of biblical interpretation to Luther and no where is divine grace more evident than in the doctrine of election. And, it is this sola gratia principle of LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s faith that preserves the eternal significance of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s death and resurrection. It is by his sacrifice, not by our own works, that God graciously extends salvation to the elect. As Luther often remarked, to assert the freedom of the will is to deny the necessity of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s atoning work. Conclusion Augustine produced a wealth of evidence to prove that paganism bore within itself the seeds of its own destruction. By means of his contrast of the earthly and heavenly citiesÃ¢â¬âthe one pagan, self-centered, and contemptuous of God and the other devout, God-centered, and in search of graceÃ¢â¬âAugustine explored and interpreted human history in relation to eternity. Saint Augustine examines the failure of Roman religion and the flaws in human civilization, thus creating the first Christian philosophy of history. Against the Ã¢â¬ËcityÃ¢â¬â¢, i.e., society, of many gods, there is but one alternate society, this Augustine calls The City of God, adopting the expression found in several of King DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s psalms. Not only is the society of many gods the society of polytheists, it is also the Ã¢â¬Å"cityÃ¢â¬ of pantheists, atheistic materialists and philosophical Cynics. In the case of the Cynics and atheists, these false gods are the myriad gods of self, indeed, at least as many gods (selves) as there are believers in them. Thus there are two Ã¢â¬Å"citiesÃ¢â¬ , two loves, two ways to understand the big questions of existence, two destinations. Says Augustine: Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The one City began with the love of God; the other had its beginnings in the love of self.Ã¢â¬ XIV:13. Ã¢â¬Å"The city of man seeks the praise of men, whereas the height of glory for the other is to hear God in the witness of conscience. The one lifts up its head in its own boasting; the other says to God: Ã¢â¬ËThou art my glory, thou liftest up my head.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Psalm 3.4) In the city of the world both the rulers themselves and the people they dominate are dominated by the lust for domination; whereas in the City of God all citizens serve one another in charity. . .Ã¢â¬ References 1. http://www.newadvent.org The Catholic encyclopedia The Journal Of Religion, J. Jeffery Tyler, volume 85, Part 1(2005), pages 317 Ã¢â¬â 319 Althaus, Paul. The Theology of Martin Luther. Translation of 2nd edition by Robert C. Schultz. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1966 Ã¢â¬â. LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s Works, Volume 31: Career of the Reformer I. ed. Philip S. Watson. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1957.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
A jussive is a type of clause (or a form of a verb) that expresses an order or command. In Semantics (1977), John Lyons notes that the term imperative sentence is often employed by other writers in the broader sense that we have given here to jussive sentence; and this can lead to confusion. Etymology: from the Latin, command Example Jussives include not only imperatives, as narrowly defined, but also related non-imperative clauses, including some in subjunctive mood: Be sensible.You be quiet.Everybody listen.Lets forget it.Heaven help us.It is important that he keep this a secret. The term jussive is, however, used to some extent as a syntactic label, and in this use would not include commands expressed as straight declaratives, e.g. You will do what I say. In popular grammars, where the term is not used, such structures would be dealt with under an expanded imperative label and under subjunctives. (Sylvia Chalker and Edmund Weiner, Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford University Press, 1994) Commentary Jussive: A term sometimes used in the grammatical analysis of verbs, to refer to a type of mood often equated with an imperative (leave!), but in some languages needing to be distinguished from it. For example, in Amharic, a jussive paradigm is used for wishes (May God give you strength), greetings, and certain other contexts, and this is formally distinct from the imperative. (David Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 4th ed. Blackwell, 1997)Imperatives constitute a subclass of a somewhat larger class of jussive clauses. . . . Non-imperative jussives include main clauses like The devil take the hindmost, God save the queen, So be it, and subordinate clauses like [It is essential] that he accompany her, [I insist] that they not be told. The construction exemplified here is productive only in subordinate clauses: the main clauses are virtually restricted to fixed expressions or formulae. Like imperatives they have a base form as first verb... A number of other relative ly minor main clause constructions might be included in the jussive category: May you be forgiven!, If that is what the premier intends, let him say so, and so on. (Rodney Huddleston, English Grammar: An Outline. Cambridge University Press, 1988)[John] Lyons [Semantics, 1977: 747] argues that the imperative can only be, strictly, second person, and never third person (or first person). This may, however, be no more than a terminological issue, since first and third person imperatives are often simply called jussives. Bybee (1985: 171) suggests that where there is a full set of person-number forms the term optative is used, but this is not entirely suitable in view of the fact that the term is used traditionally for the optative mood in Classical Greek (8.2.2)...Ã The term Jussive (plus Imperative) is preferred here. (F. R. Palmer, Mood and Modality, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2001)